Aeration
The repeated pumping of new wine in order to promote its development and its stability in the presence of air.

Alto Adige Lowlands
Southernmost section of Alto Adige/Südtirol, between Bolzano, Salorno and Termeno. Known in German as Unterland and Italian as Bassa Atesina.

American rootstock
Vine rootstock which is resistant to phylloxera and used for grafting.

Barrique
Small wooden barrel generally containing 225 liters (nearly 60 gallons) in which high-quality white and red wines are aged. Most are made from fine-pored French oak, which adds a hint of vanilla to the wine.

Blatterle
An old grape variety, a mutation of Moscato Giallo, formerly very popular in Alto Adige because of the high yield, now all but died out.

Botrytis (cinerea)
Desirable as noble rot, because it allows the water in the grapes to evaporate, thus increasing sugar concentrations. But as gray mold, it is evertheless dangerous with thin-skinned grapes because it destroys the tissue. It is also undesirable with grapes from which dry wines are intended.

Bouquet
The property of wine to give off a scent that forms its smell.

Bung
Closing stopper of the hole in the barrel.

Burgraviato
From Andrian to Algund including downtown Merano, in which in the Middle Ages, the counts of Tyrol ruled and exerted princely power.

Cabernet Franc
For many years, the predominant Cabernet grape in Alto Adige, which in recent years has been greatly replaced by Cabernet Sauvignon.

Carmenère
A mutation of Cabernet Franc that was once broadly widespread throughout Alto Adige, only remnants of which are found today.

Clone
A grape variety that has been propagated by the grafting of a shoot. The expression is often used for a particular mutation of a grape variety with certain characteristics.

DOC
Denominazione di origine controllata, the Italian designation meaning “controlled designation of origin”.

Eye
The bud of the grapevine from which the summer shoots develop in the spring.

Fraueler
Old variety that was previously widespread in the Val Venosta which produces light white wines with a high acid content.

Gleaning
After the harvest, the generally allowed search for individual grapes that were overlooked.

Grassy
Flavor tone of many Alto Adige Cabernets; on one hand, designated as “typical” and thus positive; on the other hand, evaluated rather negatively as in indication of unripe grapes.

Growth training system
General term for all forms of support for grapevines.

Guyot trellis
Modern support for grapevines consisting of parallel cables to which the shoots are attached every year. A wire frame trellis allows the vine only limited grape production.

Hand-select
The separation of the grapes from the stems.

IGT
Indicazione geografica tipica, Italian for “typical geographical indication”: a designation that has been valid since 1995 for table wines.

Kretzer
The conventional name in Alto Adige for the preparation of wine from red grapes according to the process that is common for white grapes. The best-known rosé wine that is produced in this way is the Lagrein Kretzer.

Lees
The yeasty component of the wine that settles to the bottom with secondary fermentation.

Maceration
Phase of the extraction of color, tannic acids, and flavors during the fermentation of the mash.

Malolact ic fermentation
Bacterial fermentation in which sharp malic acid is transformed into softer lactic acid. Essential with red wines, and at times also sensible with white wines that have been fermented in small oak casks.

Mash
The mixture consisting of grape seeds, peels, and must after the destemmed grapes have been ground and pressed.

Passito
Also known as “straw wine” in English: the process that is widespread in Italy for the production of late-harvest wines. The grapes are dried after harvesting and only pressed after they have substantially shriveled up.

PDO
Protected Designation of Origin – production, processing, and manufacture of a product in a certain geographical area according to a recognized and established process. In Italian: Denominazione di origine protetta, to be equated with denominazione di origine controllata (DOC).

Pergola
A traditional growth training system that is widespread in Alto Adige/Südtirol in which the grapevines are trained to climb up an arching wooden frame. Shoots and vine branches are attached high above the ground and form a canopy. Common above all for Schiava (Vernatsch).

Pinot Blanc
Also known as “Pinot Bianco” in Italian, or “Weißburgunder” or “Weißer Burgunder” in German.

Pinot Noir
Also known as “Pinot Nero” in Italian, or “Blauburgunder” or “Spätburgunder” in German.

Pruning
The trimming of excessive foliage and the removal of unfertile shoots.

Residual sugar
Unfermented fructose.

Riserva
Designation for a wine that has been aged for at least two years in a wooden barrel. Regulated by law on a case-by-case basis.

Saltner
An Alto Adigean term for a historic watchman in a field or vineyard.

Ruländer
Also known as “Pinot Grigio” in Italian or “Grauer Burgunder” in German.

Sediment
Denser substances from the wine that are deposited at the bottom of the bottle.

Stabilization
Maturation of the wine in a wooden barrel or a stainless steel tank.

Stainless steel tank
Container for the fermentation of the must and the stabilization of the wine, generally equipped with the possibility of controlling the temperature.

Stem
The green stalk portions of the grapes.

Strahler
An Alto Adigean term generally used for a white wine cuvée of varying proportions.

Tartaric acid
Salts of potassium and calcium that have crystallized out of the wine.
 
Thinning out
Reducing the grape material to improve the quality.

Törggelen
An Alto Adige/Südtirol tradition in which the year’s new wine is tasted in good company, particularly in a mountain inn. The Torggl is actually the dialect name for the wine press.

Upper Adige
The main winegrowing region of Alto Adige, which includes the two communities of Appiano and Caldaro.

Vernatsch
The most widely planted grape variety in Alto Adige. Known in Italian as “Schiava”.

Weimer
Word in Alto Adige dialect for “grapes”.

Wimmen
Word in Alto Adige dialect for “harvesting grapes”.

Wooden barrel, large
Traditional container for the stabilization and/or aging of red and white wines that are found in a variety of sizes, from 1 to 50 hectoliters (from 26 to over 1,300 gallons) and more. Large wooden barrels are used for many years and are flavor-neutral.